PREPRINT: South African Population Immunity and Severe Covid-19 with Omicron Variant



We conducted a seroepidemiological survey from October 22 to December 9, 2021, in Gauteng Province, South Africa, to determine SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) seroprevalence primarily prior to the fourth wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), in which the B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant is dominant. We evaluated epidemiological trends in case rates and rates of severe disease through to December 15, 2021, in Gauteng.


We contacted households from a previous seroepidemiological survey conducted from November 2020 to January 2021, plus an additional 10% of households using the same sampling framework. Dry blood spot samples were tested for anti-spike and anti-nucleocapsid protein IgG using quantitative assays on the Luminex platform. Daily case and death data, weekly excess deaths, and weekly hospital admissions were plotted over time.


Samples were obtained from 7010 individuals, of whom 1319 (18.8%) had received a Covid-19 vaccine. Overall seroprevalence ranged from 56.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.6 to 59.7) in children aged <12 years to 79.7% (95% CI, 77.6 to 81.5) in individuals aged >50 years. Seropositivity was 6.22-fold more likely in vaccinated (93.1%) vs unvaccinated (68.4%) individuals. Epidemiological data showed SARS-CoV-2 infection rates increased more rapidly than in previous waves but have now plateaued. Rates of hospitalizations and excess deaths did not increase proportionately, remaining relatively low.


We demonstrate widespread underlying SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in Gauteng Province prior to the current Omicron-dominant wave, with epidemiological data showing an uncoupling of hospitalization and death rates from infection rate during Omicron circulation.

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